Yes. Let me tell you why I think there could be potential differences, depending on the actual dietary practices of an individual. As stated by Forks Over Knives post author Naomi Imatame-Yun, “A whole-food, plant-based diet is centered on whole, unrefined, or minimally refined plants. It’s a diet based on fruits, vegetables, tubers, whole grains, and legumes; and it excludes or minimizes meat (including chicken and fish), dairy products, and eggs, as well as highly refined foods like bleached flour, refined sugar, and oil.” As such, those on a whole-food, plant-based diet may be either completely excluding all sources of animal protein from their diet, or may be still having small amounts of animal-based foods. There is also an emphasis in this eating pattern on consuming natural, minimally processed and refined foods as much as possible (hence the term ‘whole-food’).
A person on a vegan diet, on the other hand, subsists entirely on plant-based foods and excludes all sources of animal protein foods and products from the diet. However, a person who is vegan can choose this dietary pattern for a number of different reasons, such as for health reasons, a desire to safeguard and protect the environment and/or to oppose animal cruelty. It is also possible for a person who is on a vegan diet to extend protection of animals to other lifestyle decisions such as choosing to avoid leather products or cosmetic products that are tested on animals.
(Source: Imatome-Yun, N. forksoverknives.com. Plant-Based Primer: The Beginner’s Guide to Starting a Plant-Based Diet. https://www.forksoverknives.com/plant-based-primer-beginners-guide-starting-plant-based-diet/. January 3, 2017. Accessed February 5, 2018.)